Cholesterol Metabolism and Diabetes

Cholesterol metabolism is altered in diabetes. Cholesterol absorption is decreased and the cholesterol biosynthesis is increased in diabetes. The increased cholesterol synthesis can be reduced by insulin. Low cholesterol absorption efficiency has been reported earlier in a limited number of diabetic subjects with mild hyperlipidemia and in moderately overweight. In type 2 diabetes, in obesity and in conditions such as cortisol excess (Cushing’s Syndrome), raised insulin levels are frequently found. Insulin resistance is often associated. Lack of insulin can lower the level of "good" cholesterol (HDL, or high density lipoprotein). When insulin is given and well controlled, HDL numbers typically go back to normal. Cholesterol problems in people who have type 1 diabetes are usually related to the lack of insulin. Gestation diabetes mellitus is associated with higher cholesterol synthesis in the first trimester, and elevated serum squalene levels in the second and third trimester of pregnancy, and that maternal serum squalene and cholesterol synthesis correlates with birth weight.

 

 

  • Insulin resistance
  • Cholesterol absorption
  • Cholesterol synthesis
  • Enterohepatic circulation
  • Sterols and diabetes
  • The succinate hypothesis

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