Cholesterol Metabolism

All the tissues synthesize cholesterol from acetyl-CoA. In adult the most actively synthesizing organs are liver and intestinal wall. The capacity of hydroxymethylglutarylCoA (HMG-CoA) reductase determines the rate of synthesis of cholesterol in most of the tissues. Cholesterol is absorbed in the presence of bile salts. After entering the cells of the intestinal mucosa, cholesterol is incorporated into chylomicrons, which enter the blood circulation via the lymphatic system. The proportion of the cholesterol in the food that is absorbed depends upon the intake of cholesterol and the amount of triglyceride in the diet; triglyceride tends to promote cholesterol absorption. It is then oxidized by the liver into a variety of bile acids. Bile acids, along with cholesterol itself, are excreted from the liver into the bile. Almost 95% of the bile acids are reabsorbed from the intestines, and the remainder are lost in the faeces. The excretion and reabsorption of bile acids forms the basis of the enterohepatic circulation. 

  • Cholesterol metabolism and immunology
  • Hepatic cholesterol metabolism
  • Bile acid metabolism
  • Cholesterol metabolism in central nervous system
  • Intestinal cholesterol absorption
  • Dubin Johnson syndrome

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